When working on a complicated feature, it is often helpful to break up functionality into logical and cohesive “working sets” or “change sets”. This helps not on the author, but other engineers during peer code review.
In day-to-day development and when using version control, change sets will almost always mean feature branches in Git.
Because complicated features may build upon functionality introduced as part of the new feature that has not yet been merged back to the main branch, a situation depicted below can often occur:
o---o---o master \ o---o---o feature-a-part-1 \ o---o---o feature-a-part-2 \ o---o---o feature-a-part-3
In a perfect world, all 3 feature branches would be bug-free, have the necessary code review approvals, and be ready to be merged back to the main branch at the same time in sequential order:
(feature-a-part-2) $ git merge feature-a-part-3 (feature-a-part-2) $ git co feature-a-part-1 (feature-a-part-1) $ git merge feature-a-part-2 (feature-a-part-1) $ git co master (master) $ git merge feature-a-part-1
Unfortunately things are much more likely to be a bit messier in real life. Some common scenarios:
- What happens when parts 1 or 2 have some awkwardness that needs to be reworked?
- Parts 1 and/or 2 are approved and ready to be merged to master, but 3 is not?
- The master branch (or another feature branch) have some changes that make our branch out of date?
The situation can be further complicated when a repository prefers the “squash-merge” strategy since history is effectively “rolled up” during the squash process, requiring work on the part of the engineer to make sure branches forked from other feature branches are merged correctly back to the main branch.
Enter Git rebase –onto. Taken directly from the documentation:
Here is how you would transplant a topic branch based on one branch to another, to pretend that you forked the topic branch from the latter branch, using
First let’s assume your topic is based on branch next. For example, a feature developed in topic depends on some functionality which is found in next.
o---o---o---o---o master \ o---o---o---o---o next \ o---o---o topic
We want to make topic forked from branch master; for example, because the functionality on which topic depends was merged into the more stable master branch. We want our tree to look like this:
o---o---o---o---o master | \ | o'--o'--o' topic \ o---o---o---o---o next
We can get this using the following command:
$ git rebase --onto master next topic
Using our previous 3-part example above, assume that part 2 has been merged into part 1 and part 1 has been merged into master. We can fix part 3’s PR like so:
(master) $ git pull (master) $ git co feature-a-part-3 (feature-a-part-3) $ git rebase -i HEAD~2 --onto master
We are replaying the 2 commits made on part 3 after it branched off part 2 onto the new tip of master.